Living Through Cancer

Resources

Select a type of cancer to learn about

A

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)


Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the types of leukemia plus treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)


Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the types of leukemia plus treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Adolescents, Cancer in


About 70,000 young people (ages 15 to 39) are diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States—accounting for about 5 percent of cancer diagnoses in the United States. This is about six times the number of cancers diagnosed in children ages 0 to 14. Young adults are more likely than either younger children or older adults to be diagnosed with certain cancers, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer, and sarcomas. However, the incidence of specific cancer types varies according to age. Leukemia, lymphoma, testicular cancer, and thyroid cancer are the most common cancers among 15- to 24-year-olds. Among 25- to 39-year-olds, breast cancer and melanoma are the most common. Evidence suggests that some cancers in adolescents and young adults may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are working to learn more about the biology of cancers in young adults so that they can identity molecularly targeted therapies that may be effective in these cancers.




Adrenocortical Carcinoma


Adrenocortical cancer (also called cancer of the adrenal cortex) is rare. Certain inherited disorders increase the risk of adrenocortical cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about adrenocortical cancer treatment, research, and clinical trials.




AIDS-Related Cancers


  • Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
    • Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Explore the links on this page to learn more about different types of soft tissue sarcoma and how they are treated. We also have information about research and clinical trials.
  • AIDS-Related Lymphoma (Lymphoma)
    • Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.
  • Primary CNS Lymphoma (Lymphoma)
    • Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Anal Cancer


Anal cancer cases have been increasing over several decades. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for anal cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about anal cancer prevention, treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Appendix Cancer - see Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors


Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix. Explore the links on this page to learn more about GI carcinoid tumor treatment and clinical trials.




Astrocytomas, Childhood (Brain Cancer)


Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood, Central Nervous System (Brain Cancer)


Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials.





B

Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - see Skin Cancer


Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma. Explore the links on this page to learn more about skin cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Bile Duct Cancer


Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver. Explore the links on this page to learn more about liver cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Bladder Cancer


The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. Explore the links on this page to learn more about bladder cancer treatment, screening, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Bone Cancer (includes Ewing Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma)


Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Brain Tumors


Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread. Explore the links on this page to learn more about breast cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Bronchial Tumors (Lung Cancer)


Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lung cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Burkitt Lymphoma - see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma


Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.





C

Carcinoid tumor (Gastrointestinal)


Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix. Explore the links on this page to learn more about GI carcinoid tumor treatment and clinical trials.




Carcinoma of Unknown Primary


Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) occurs when cancer cells have spread in the body and formed metastatic tumors but the site of the primary cancer is not known. Explore the links on this page to learn more about CUP, how it is treated, and clinical trials that are available.




Cardiac (Heart) Tumors, Childhood


General Information About Childhood Cardiac (Heart) Tumors KEY POINTS

  • Childhood cardiac tumors, which may be benign or malignant, form in the heart.
  • Signs and symptoms of a heart tumor include a change in the heart's normal rhythm and trouble breathing.
  • Tests that examine the heart are used to detect (find) and diagnose a heart tumor.
Childhood cardiac tumors, which may be benign or malignant, form in the heart. Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Benign heart tumors that may appear in children include the following:
  • Rhabdomyoma: A tumor that forms in muscle made up of long fibers.
  • Myxoma: A tumor that may be part of an inherited syndrome called Carney complex. See the PDQ summary on Childhood Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes for more information.
  • Teratomas: A type of germ cell tumor. In the heart, these tumors form most often in the pericardium (the sac that covers the heart). Some teratomas are malignant (cancer).
  • Fibroma: A tumor that forms in fiber-like tissue that holds bones, muscles, and other organs in place.
  • Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy tumor: A tumor that forms in the heart cells that control heart rhythm.
  • Hemangiomas: A tumor that forms in the cells that line blood vessels.
  • Neurofibroma: A tumor that forms in the cells and tissues that cover nerves.
Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in an unborn baby (fetus) or newborn. Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children. Malignant heart tumors include:
  • Malignant teratoma.
  • Lymphoma.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma: A cancer that forms in muscle made up of long fibers.
  • Angiosarcoma: A cancer that forms in cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels.
  • Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: A cancer that usually forms in the soft tissue, but it may also form in bone.
  • Leiomyosarcoma: A cancer that forms in smooth muscle cells.
  • Chondrosarcoma: A cancer that usually forms in bone cartilage, but very rarely can begin in the heart.
  • Synovial sarcoma: A cancer that usually forms around joints, but may very rarely form in the heart or sac around the heart.
  • Infantile fibrosarcoma: A cancer that forms in fiber-like tissue that holds bones, muscles, and other organs in place.
When cancer begins in another part of the body and spreads to the heart, it is called metastatic cancer. Some types of cancer, such as sarcoma, melanoma, and leukemia, start in other parts of the body and spread to the heart. This summary is about cancer that first forms in the heart, not metastatic cancer.




Central Nervous System


Atypical Teratoid/Rhabodoid Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer) Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials. Medulloblastoma and Other CNS Embryonal Tumors, Childhood (Brain Cancer) Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials. Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer) Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials. Primary CNS Lymphoma Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Cervical Cancer


Cervical cancer is nearly always caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Explore the links on this page to learn about cervical cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Childhood Cancers


Types of Cancer in Children In the United States in 2019, an estimated 11,060 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed among children from birth to 14 years, and about 1,190 children are expected to die from the disease. Although cancer death rates for this age group have declined by 65 percent from 1970 to 2016, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease among children. The most common types of cancer diagnosed in children ages 0 to 14 years are leukemias, brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and lymphomas. Treating Childhood Cancer Children's cancers are not always treated like adult cancers. Pediatric oncology is a medical specialty focused on the care of children with cancer. It's important to know that this expertise exists and that there are effective treatments for many childhood cancers. Types of Treatment There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that a child with cancer receives will depend on the type of cancer and how advanced it is. Common treatments include: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplant. Learn about these and other therapies in our Types of Treatment section.




Cancers of Childhood, Unusual


Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children. Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half. The unusual cancers discussed in this summary are so rare that most children's hospitals are likely to see less than a handful of some types in several years. Because the unusual cancers are so rare, there is not a lot of information about what treatment works best. A child's treatment is often based on what has been learned from treating other children. Sometimes, information is available only from reports of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of one child or a small group of children who were given the same type of treatment. Many different cancers are covered in this summary. They are grouped by where they are found in the body. Tests are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage unusual cancers of childhood. Tests are done to detect, diagnose, and stage cancer. The tests used depend on the type of cancer. After cancer is diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread from where the cancer began to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan the best treatment.




Cholangiocarcinoma


See Bile Duct Cancer




Chordoma, Childhood (Bone Cancer)


Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)


Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the types of leukemia plus treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)


Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the types of leukemia plus treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms


Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present. Explore the links on this page to learn about their treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Colorectal Cancer


Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about colorectal cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Craniopharyngioma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)


Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma


See Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome)





D

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)


See Breast Cancer





E

Embryonal Tumors, Medulloblastoma and Other Central Nervous System, Childhood (Brain Cancer)


Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)


Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat. Explore the links on this page to learn more about uterine cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Ependymoma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)


Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Esophageal Cancer


The most common types of esophageal cancer are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. These two forms of esophageal cancer tend to develop in different parts of the esophagus and are driven by different genetic changes. Explore the links on this page to learn more about esophageal cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Esthesioneuroblastoma (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer)


Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood


Extracranial germ cell tumors are tumors that develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs) and can form in many parts of the body. They are most common in teenagers and can often be cured. Explore the links on this page to learn more about extracranial germ cell tumors, how they are treated, and clinical trials that are available.




Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor


Extragonadal germ cell tumors develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs). Extragonadal germ cell tumors form outside the gonads (testicles and ovaries). Explore the links on this page to learn more about extragonadal germ cell tumors, how they are treated, and clinical trials that are available.




Eye Cancer


Intraocular (Eye) Melanoma Intraocular (uveal) melanoma is a rare cancer that forms in the eye. It usually has no early signs or symptoms. As with melanoma of the skin, risk factors include having fair skin and light-colored eyes. Explore the links on this page to learn more about intraocular melanoma, its treatment, and clinical trials. Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma is a very rare childhood cancer that forms in the tissues of the retina. It can occur in one or both eyes. Most cases of retinoblastoma are not inherited, but some are, and children with a family history of the disease should have their eyes checked beginning at an early age. Explore the links on this page to learn more about retinoblastoma treatment and clinical trials.





F

Fallopian Tube Cancer


Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors. Explore the links on this page to learn more about treatment, prevention, screening, research, and clinical trials for these conditions.




Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone, Malignant, and Osteosarcoma


Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.





G

Gallblader Cancer





Gastric (Stomach) Cancer





Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor





Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)





Germ Cell Tumors


Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors (Brain Cancer) Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. We also have information about brain cancer statistics, research, and clinical trials. Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Extracranial germ cell tumors are tumors that develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs) and can form in many parts of the body. They are most common in teenagers and can often be cured. Explore the links on this page to learn more about extracranial germ cell tumors, how they are treated, and clinical trials that are available. Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Extragonadal germ cell tumors develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs). Extragonadal germ cell tumors form outside the gonads (testicles and ovaries). Explore the links on this page to learn more about extragonadal germ cell tumors, how they are treated, and clinical trials that are available. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors. Explore the links on this page to learn more about treatment, prevention, screening, research, and clinical trials for these conditions. Testicular Cancer Testicular cancer most often begins in germ cells (cells that make sperm). It is rare and is most frequently diagnosed in men 20-34 years old. Most testicular cancers can be cured, even if diagnosed at an advanced stage. Explore the links on this page to learn more about testicular cancer screening, treatment, statistics, and clinical trials.




Gestational Trophoblastic Disease


Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a general term for rare tumors that form from the tissues surrounding fertilized egg. GTD is often found early and usually cured. Hydatidiform mole (HM) is the most common type of GTD. Explore the links on this page to learn more about GTD treatment and clinical trials.





H

Hairy Cell Leukemia


Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the types of leukemia plus treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Head and Neck Cancer


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Heart Tumors, Childhood


General Information About Childhood Cardiac (Heart) Tumors KEY POINTS

  • Childhood cardiac tumors, which may be benign or malignant, form in the heart.
  • Signs and symptoms of a heart tumor include a change in the heart's normal rhythm and trouble breathing.
  • Tests that examine the heart are used to detect (find) and diagnose a heart tumor.
Childhood cardiac tumors, which may be benign or malignant, form in the heart. Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Benign heart tumors that may appear in children include the following:
  • Rhabdomyoma: A tumor that forms in muscle made up of long fibers.
  • Myxoma: A tumor that may be part of an inherited syndrome called Carney complex. See the PDQ summary on Childhood Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes for more information.
  • Teratomas: A type of germ cell tumor. In the heart, these tumors form most often in the pericardium (the sac that covers the heart). Some teratomas are malignant (cancer).
  • Fibroma: A tumor that forms in fiber-like tissue that holds bones, muscles, and other organs in place.
  • Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy tumor: A tumor that forms in the heart cells that control heart rhythm.
  • Hemangiomas: A tumor that forms in the cells that line blood vessels.
  • Neurofibroma: A tumor that forms in the cells and tissues that cover nerves.
Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in an unborn baby (fetus) or newborn.




Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer


Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver. Explore the links on this page to learn more about liver cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Histiocytosis, Langerhans Cell


NCI does not have PDQ evidence-based information about prevention of langerhans cell histiocytosis.




Hodgkin Lymphoma


Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Hypopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.





I

Intraocular Melanoma


Intraocular (uveal) melanoma is a rare cancer that forms in the eye. It usually has no early signs or symptoms. As with melanoma of the skin, risk factors include having fair skin and light-colored eyes. Explore the links on this page to learn more about intraocular melanoma, its treatment, and clinical trials.




Islet Cell Tumors, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors


Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas: exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis. Explore the links on this page to learn more about pancreatic cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.





K

Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)


Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Explore the links on this page to learn more about different types of soft tissue sarcoma and how they are treated. We also have information about research and clinical trials.




Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer


Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about kidney cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.





L

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis


NCI does not have PDQ evidence-based information about prevention of langerhans cell histiocytosis.




Laryngeal Cancer (Head and Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Leukemia


Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the types of leukemia plus treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Liver Cancer


Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver. Explore the links on this page to learn more about liver cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Lung Cancer


Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lung cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Lymphoma


Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.





M

Male Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread. Explore the links on this page to learn more about breast cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone and Osteosarcoma


Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Melanoma


Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma. Explore the links on this page to learn more about skin cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Melanoma, Intraocular (Eye)


Intraocular (uveal) melanoma is a rare cancer that forms in the eye. It usually has no early signs or symptoms. As with melanoma of the skin, risk factors include having fair skin and light-colored eyes. Explore the links on this page to learn more about intraocular melanoma, its treatment, and clinical trials.




Merkel Cell Carcinoma (Skin Cancer)


Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma. Explore the links on this page to learn more about skin cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Mesothelioma, Malignant


Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer of the thin tissue (mesothelium) that lines the lung, chest wall, and abdomen. The major risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos exposure. Explore the links on this page to learn more about malignant mesothelioma treatment and clinical trials.




Metastatic Cancer


The main reason that cancer is so serious is its ability to spread in the body. Cancer cells can spread locally by moving into nearby normal tissue. Cancer can also spread regionally, to nearby lymph nodes, tissues, or organs. And it can spread to distant parts of the body. When this happens, it is called metastatic cancer. For many types of cancer, it is also called stage IV (four) cancer. The process by which cancer cells spread to other parts of the body is called metastasis. When observed under a microscope and tested in other ways, metastatic cancer cells have features like that of the primary cancer and not like the cells in the place where the cancer is found. This is how doctors can tell that it is cancer that has spread from another part of the body. Metastatic cancer has the same name as the primary cancer. For example, breast cancer that spreads to the lung is called metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer. It is treated as stage IV breast cancer, not as lung cancer. Sometimes when people are diagnosed with metastatic cancer, doctors cannot tell where it started. This type of cancer is called cancer of unknown primary origin, or CUP. See the Carcinoma of Unknown Primary page for more information. When a new primary cancer occurs in a person with a history of cancer, it is known as a second primary cancer. Second primary cancers are rare. Most of the time, when someone who has had cancer has cancer again, it means the first primary cancer has returned.




Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Midline Tract Carcinoma With NUT Gene Changes


General Information About Childhood Midline Tract Carcinoma KEY POINTS

  • Childhood midline tract carcinoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the respiratory tract or other places along the middle of the body.
  • Midline tract carcinoma is sometimes caused by a change in the NUT gene.
  • The signs and symptoms of midline tract carcinoma are not the same in every child.
  • Tests that examine the body are used to help detect (find) and diagnose midline tract carcinoma.
  • Midline tract carcinoma grows and spreads quickly.
Childhood midline tract carcinoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the respiratory tract or other places along the middle of the body. The respiratory tract is made up of the nose, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Midline tract carcinoma may also form in other places along the middle of the body, such as the thymus, the area between the lungs, the pancreas, liver, and bladder. Midline tract carcinoma is sometimes caused by a change in the NUT gene. Midline tract carcinoma is caused by a change in a chromosome. Every cell in the body contains DNA (genetic material stored inside chromosomes) that controls how the cell looks and acts. Midline tract carcinoma may form when part of the DNA from chromosome 15 (called the NUT gene) joins with the DNA from another chromosome.




Mouth Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes


General Information About Childhood Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes KEY POINTS

  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are inherited disorders that affect the endocrine system.
  • There are several types of MEN syndromes and each type may cause different conditions or cancers.
  • MEN1 syndrome usually causes tumors in the parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, or islet cells of the pancreas.
  • MEN2A syndrome may cause medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, or parathyroid gland disease.
  • MEN2B syndrome causes several conditions.
  • Familial medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (FMTC) is like MEN2A syndrome without pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma gland disease.
  • Children with MEN2A syndrome, MEN2B syndrome, or FMTC may need genetic testing.
  • Tests used to diagnose and stage cancers related to MEN syndromes depend on the signs and symptoms and the patient's family history.
  • If cancer, such as medullary thyroid cancer, has formed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to nearby areas or to other parts of the body.
  • There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
  • Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are inherited disorders that affect the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of glands and cells that make hormones and release them into the blood. MEN syndromes may cause hyperplasia (the growth of too many normal cells) or tumors that may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). There are several types of MEN syndromes and each type may cause different conditions or cancers. The two main types of MEN syndromes are MEN1 and MEN2. MEN2 syndrome has three subgroups: MEN2A syndrome, MEN2B syndrome, and familial medullary thyroid cancer. MEN1 syndrome usually causes tumors in the parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, or islet cells of the pancreas. A diagnosis of MEN1 syndrome is made when tumors are found in two of the following glands or organs: parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, or islet cells in the pancreas. These tumors may make extra hormones and cause certain signs or symptoms of disease. The signs and symptoms depend on the type of hormone made by the tumor. MEN1 syndrome is also called Wermer syndrome. The prognosis (chance of recovery) is usually good.




Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasms


Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors in bone or soft tissue. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma. Explore the links on this page to learn more about multiple myeloma treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Mycosis Fungoides (Lymphoma)


Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms


Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present. Explore the links on this page to learn about their treatment, research, and clinical trials. Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present. Explore the links on this page to learn about their treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic (CML)


Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the types of leukemia plus treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Myeloid Leukemia, Acute (AML)


Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the types of leukemia plus treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Chronic


Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present. Explore the links on this page to learn about their treatment, research, and clinical trials.





N

Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Nasopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Neuroblastoma


Neuroblastoma is a cancer of immature nerve cells that most often occurs in young children. It usually begins in the adrenal glands but can form in the neck, chest, abdomen, and spine. Explore the links on this page to learn more about neuroblastoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma


Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer


Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lung cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.





O

Oral Cancer, Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer and Oropharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone


Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Ovarian Cancer


Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors. Explore the links on this page to learn more about treatment, prevention, screening, research, and clinical trials for these conditions.





P

Pancreatic Cancer


Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas: exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis. Explore the links on this page to learn more about pancreatic cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumor)


Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas: exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis. Explore the links on this page to learn more about pancreatic cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Papillomatosis (Childhood Laryngeal)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Paraganglioma


Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that can be benign (not cancer) or malignant. Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal glands, and paragangliomas usually along nerve pathways in the head, neck, and spine. Explore the links on this page to learn more about these tumors, their treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Parathyroid Cancer


Parathyroid tumors are usually benign (not cancer) and are called adenomas. Parathyroid cancer is very rare. Having certain inherited disorders can increase the risk of parathyroid cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about parathyroid cancer treatment and clinical trials.




Penile Cancer


Penile cancer usually forms on or under the foreskin. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about one-third of penile cancer cases. When found early, penile cancer is usually curable. Explore the links on this page to learn more about penile cancer treatment and clinical trials.




Pharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Pheochromocytoma


Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that can be benign (not cancer) or malignant. Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal glands, and paragangliomas usually along nerve pathways in the head, neck, and spine. Explore the links on this page to learn more about these tumors, their treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Pituitary Tumors


Pituitary tumors are usually not cancer and are called pituitary adenomas. They grow slowly and do not spread. Rarely, pituitary tumors are cancer and they can spread to distant parts of the body. Explore the links on this page to learn more about pituitary tumor treatment and clinical trials.




Plasma Cell Neoplasm/Multiple Myeloma


Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors in bone or soft tissue. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma. Explore the links on this page to learn more about multiple myeloma treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (Lung Cancer)


Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lung cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Pregnancy and Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread. Explore the links on this page to learn more about breast cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Primary Central Nercous System (CNS) Lymphoma


Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Primary Peritoneal Cancer


Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors. Explore the links on this page to learn more about treatment, prevention, screening, research, and clinical trials for these conditions.




Prostate Cancer


Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly, and finding and treating it before symptoms occur may not improve men's health or help them live longer. Explore the links on this page to learn about prostate cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, and more.





R

Rectal Cancer


Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about colorectal cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Recurrent Cancer


Recurrent Cancer: When Cancer Comes Back When cancer comes back after treatment, doctors call it a recurrence or recurrent cancer. Finding out that cancer has come back can cause feelings of shock, anger, sadness, and fear. But you have something now that you didn’t have before—experience. You’ve lived through cancer already and you know what to expect. Also, remember that treatments may have improved since you were first diagnosed. New drugs or methods may help with your treatment or in managing side effects. In some cases, improved treatments have helped turn cancer into a chronic disease that people can manage for many years. Why Cancer Comes Back Recurrent cancer starts with cancer cells that the first treatment didn’t fully remove or destroy. This doesn’t mean that the treatment you received was wrong. It just means that a small number of cancer cells survived the treatment and were too small to show up in follow-up tests. Over time, these cells grew into tumors or cancer that your doctor can now detect. Sometimes, a new type of cancer will occur in people who have a history of cancer. When this happens, the new cancer is known as a second primary cancer. Second primary cancer is different from recurrent cancer. Types of Recurrent Cancer Doctors describe recurrent cancer by where it develops and how far it has spread. The different types of recurrence are:

  • Local recurrence means that the cancer is in the same place as the original cancer or very close to it.
  • Regional recurrence means that the tumor has grown into lymph nodes or tissues near the original cancer.
  • Distant recurrence means the cancer has spread to organs or tissues far from the original cancer. When cancer spreads to a distant place in the body, it is called metastasis or metastatic cancer. When cancer spreads, it is still the same type of cancer. For example, if you had colon cancer, it may come back in your liver. But, the cancer is still called colon cancer.




Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer


Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about kidney cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Retinoblastoma


Retinoblastoma is a very rare childhood cancer that forms in the tissues of the retina. It can occur in one or both eyes. Most cases of retinoblastoma are not inherited, but some are, and children with a family history of the disease should have their eyes checked beginning at an early age. Explore the links on this page to learn more about retinoblastoma treatment and clinical trials.




Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)


Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Explore the links on this page to learn more about different types of soft tissue sarcoma and how they are treated. We also have information about research and clinical trials.





S

Salivary Gland Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Sarcoma


Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Explore the links on this page to learn more about different types of soft tissue sarcoma and how they are treated. We also have information about research and clinical trials. Childhood Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Explore the links on this page to learn more about different types of soft tissue sarcoma and how they are treated. We also have information about research and clinical trials. Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer) Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials. Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Explore the links on this page to learn more about different types of soft tissue sarcoma and how they are treated. We also have information about research and clinical trials. Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer) Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials. Soft Tissue Sarcoma Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Explore the links on this page to learn more about different types of soft tissue sarcoma and how they are treated. We also have information about research and clinical trials. Uterine Sarcoma Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat. Explore the links on this page to learn more about uterine cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Sezary Syndrome (Lymphoma)


Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lymphoma treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Skin Cancer


Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma. Explore the links on this page to learn more about skin cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Small Cell Lung Cancer


Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lung cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Small Intestine Cancer


Small intestine cancer usually begins in an area of the intestine called the duodenum. This cancer is rarer than cancers in other parts of the gastrointestinal system, such as the colon and stomach. Explore the links on this page to learn more about small intestine cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Soft Tissue Sarcoma


Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Explore the links on this page to learn more about different types of soft tissue sarcoma and how they are treated. We also have information about research and clinical trials.




Squamos Cell Carcinoma of the Skin


See Skin Cancer




Squamos Neck Cancer with Occult Primary, Metastatic (Head and Neck Cancer)


Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Stomach (Gastric) Cancer


Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions. Explore the links on this page to learn more about gastric cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.





T

T-Cell Lymphona, Cutaneous


See Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome)




Testicular Cancer


Testicular cancer most often begins in germ cells (cells that make sperm). It is rare and is most frequently diagnosed in men 20-34 years old. Most testicular cancers can be cured, even if diagnosed at an advanced stage. Explore the links on this page to learn more about testicular cancer screening, treatment, statistics, and clinical trials.




Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)


Nasopharyngeal Cancer Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more. Oropharyngeal Cancer Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the different types of head and neck cancer and how they are treated. We also have information about prevention, screening, research, clinical trials, and more.




Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma


Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare tumors that form in cells on the thymus. Thymomas grow slowly and rarely spread beyond the thymus. Thymic carcinoma grows faster, often spreads to other parts of the body, and is harder to treat. Explore the links on this page to learn more about thymoma and thymic carcinoma treatment and clinical trials.




Thyroid Cancer


There are four main types of thyroid cancer. These are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Papillary is the most common type. The four types differ in how aggressive they are. Thyroid cancer that is found at an early stage can often be treated successfully. Explore the links on this page to learn more about thyroid cancer treatment, screening, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Tracheobronchial Tumors (Lung Cancer)


Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about lung cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.




Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer)


Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about kidney cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.





U

Unknown Primary, Carcinoma of


Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) occurs when cancer cells have spread in the body and formed metastatic tumors but the site of the primary cancer is not known. Explore the links on this page to learn more about CUP, how it is treated, and clinical trials that are available.




Unusual Cancers of Childhood


General Information About Unusual Cancers of Childhood KEY POINTS

  • Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children.
  • Tests are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage unusual cancers of childhood.
  • There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
  • Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body.
Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children. Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half. The unusual cancers discussed in this summary are so rare that most children's hospitals are likely to see less than a handful of some types in several years. Because the unusual cancers are so rare, there is not a lot of information about what treatment works best. A child's treatment is often based on what has been learned from treating other children. Sometimes, information is available only from reports of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of one child or a small group of children who were given the same type of treatment. Many different cancers are covered in this summary. They are grouped by where they are found in the body. Tests are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage unusual cancers of childhood. Tests are done to detect, diagnose, and stage cancer. The tests used depend on the type of cancer. After cancer is diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread from where the cancer began to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan the best treatment.




Ureter and Renal Pelvis, Transitional Cell Cancer (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer)


Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about kidney cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Urethral Cancer


Urethral cancer is rare and is more common in men than in women. Urethral cancer can metastasize (spread) quickly to tissues around the urethra and has often spread to nearby lymph nodes by the time it is diagnosed. Explore the links on this page to learn more about urethral cancer treatment and clinical trials.




Uterine Cancer, Endometrial


Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat. Explore the links on this page to learn more about uterine cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.




Uterine Sarcoma


Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat. Explore the links on this page to learn more about uterine cancer prevention, screening, treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.





V

Vaginal Cancer


Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two-thirds of the cases of vaginal cancer. Vaccines that protect against infection with HPV may reduce the risk of vaginal cancer. When found early, vaginal cancer can often be cured. Explore the links on this page to learn more about vaginal cancer treatment, research, and clinical trials.




Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)


NCI does not have PDQ evidence-based information about prevention of soft tissue sarcoma.




Vulvar Cancer


Vulvar cancer usually forms slowly over years, most often on the vaginal lips or the sides of the vaginal opening. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about half of all vulvar cancers. Explore the links on this page to learn more about vulvar cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.





W

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors


Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Explore the links on this page to learn more about kidney cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.





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Young Adults, Cancer In


Types of Cancers in Young People About 70,000 young people (ages 15 to 39) are diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States—accounting for about 5 percent of cancer diagnoses in the United States. This is about six times the number of cancers diagnosed in children ages 0 to 14. Young adults are more likely than either younger children or older adults to be diagnosed with certain cancers, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer, and sarcomas. However, the incidence of specific cancer types varies according to age. Leukemia, lymphoma, testicular cancer, and thyroid cancer are the most common cancers among 15- to 24-year-olds. Among 25- to 39-year-olds, breast cancer and melanoma are the most common. Evidence suggests that some cancers in adolescents and young adults may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are working to learn more about the biology of cancers in young adults so that they can identity molecularly targeted therapies that may be effective in these cancers. The most common cancers in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are:

  • Brain and other Central Nervous System Tumors

  • Breast

  • Cervical

  • Colorectal

  • Germ Cell Tumors

    • Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor (Childhood)

    • Extragondal Germ Cell Tumor

  • Leukemia

  • Liver

  • Lymphoma

  • Melanoma

  • Sarcomas

    • Bone

    • Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    • Uterine Sarcome

  • Testicular

  • Thyroid





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